| The best in sea kayak design
When we designed the first Mariner back in 1980 we wanted to have the pleasure of paddling the ultimate sea cruising kayak. To that end we had several design objectives:
1. Speed and Paddling Ease
2. Tracking and Maneuverability
3. Seaworthiness and Safety
4. Comfort and Convenience
To satisfy these objectives we spent months of library time researching material and information relevant to making our dream kayak a reality. We did not begin the actual design of the first Mariner until we were confident we had acquired the knowledge to do the job right. After twenty years and nine more sea kayak designs, we still have the same objectives. We have continued our researching, experimenting and testing, both with our own designs and by paddling around seven hundred other sea kayak models. As a result we've gained much more expertise to help us achieve our objectives. Each of our models maximizes benefits and minimizes limitations for kayakers with different needs owing to size, strength, and intended use.
Each new Mariner prototype is tested and modified many times before the final mold is made. One reason is to fine tune the kayak's performance in winds and waves. We test each modification for balance in side winds and broaching in following seas and change it further if the performance doesn't meet our exacting standards. We test for how cleanly the bow cuts through the water. We don't want our kayaks splashing water forward at higher speed (increasing resistance) as many kayaks do. We test how softly the bow drops into the water after being lifted by a wave to avoid the harsh jarring ride common among other kayaks when traveling into the waves. We test how well the bow keeps water off the deck and also how well the deck sheds water in those rare times when water does make it over the bow. We fine tune the turning/tracking balance of the hull by modifying the location, shape and depth of the keel. If not entirely happy we make changes to improve the prototype and test and change it again and again until we are satisfied.
Although it is unlikely to be admitted, prototype testing is rare among kayak designers. Usually a kayak isn't tested until the original "plug" is molded and the first production unit is built. A strip-built plug is difficult to waterproof for testing, making changes to it is time consuming hard work because the prototype/plug must be faired, smoothed, and waterproofed again before retesting. We know because we do it many times with each design. We go through this lengthy and difficult process because a sea kayak's handling characteristics simply can not be mathematically predicted accurately enough to satisfy us. Testing, modifying, and retesting is the only way to get things right.
The considerable extra time and work we put into the prototype is well worth the effort because we are serious about designing, building and paddling the best kayaks, period. We cater to customers who won't settle for less than the best. It boosts our ego and makes the effort seem worth it whenever one of these careful customers, after testing every kayak they can find, ends up trying to decide between two Mariner designs.
Each of our kayaks looks somewhat different from the other kayaks in our line because each model is designed from the start to maximize benefits for a particular person or purpose. Each has some area where it not only blows the competition away but also outshines our other models. Though appearing different, closer inspection will reveal our kayaks have much in common. With each new model we begin with the shapes we found work best and then we experiment with possible improvements or changes that may make it more suitable for a particular person or purpose. We test new ideas in the prototype stage and incorporate them into the new design if they prove effective.
All Mariners perform well without rudders, especially in the conditions, such as side winds, following seas, steep cross-chop and extremes of wind and wave, where most sea kayaks have difficulty even with (and sometimes because of) a rudder. We believe simpler is better. Most of our customers soon have little use for rudders and are overjoyed to be rid of them and their associated problems.
What problems? How about: (1) the lack of solid foot pedals that can be used to add leg power to your stroke, (2) more windage at the stern, which increases weathercocking, (3) decreased maneuverability of the kayak -- that's right, a rudder almost always reduces turning speed, especially when spinning the kayak in place, (4) it can trip the kayak during a broach when the blade reenters the water, (5) cables and cords can wear out, break or become fouled, (6) small parts can corrode, come loose or get lost, (7) a rudder can get tangled with tow lines or fishing lines, (8) it can interfere with rescues (it could be dangerous to straddle the back deck of a ruddered kayak--or even to hang on to the stern--to be rescued out of surf), (9) rudders are subject to damage in surf, in rock gardens and caves, beaching, during rescues, or just being tripped over in camp, (10) its more difficult to carry the stern (because of the more forward toggle location required by most rudders the hull bounces against your leg as you walk and it is difficult to switch hands without straining your back and risking your groin to sharp corners), and (11) the cables and pintle penetrating the hull can be a source of leaks.
Rudders can break at sea in ways that make a kayak unmanageable, but even when they fail safely there may still be a problem because the kayaker has become a "rudderer" rather than a paddler. Sea kayakers often are dependent on their rudders because that is all they practice. Rudder dependent paddlers may be incapable of handling the best kayak in difficult conditions without one. Worse, even expert paddlers find many sea kayak models hard to control without a rudder and some kayaks are so squirrelly that even a rudder doesn't help them much. If controlling your kayak in rough conditions depends on a rudder you are relying on the most vulnerable part of a kayak to get you through the conditions most likely to over stress it.
All Mariner sea kayaks have a number of features in common. These include:
Speed and paddling ease
Mariner kayaks are easier to propel
than kayaks of similar length and beam. This was clearly demonstrated when Sea
Kayaker magazine ran a series of resistance tests on kayaks at the University
of British Columbia's ship model towing tank. Of the six kayaks that could be compared the
Mariner XL was 9% easier at four knots than the next best tested, and had 18% less
resistance than one popular model. While it wasn't as initially stable as many, it
capsized at a greater angle of heel than nine of the other ten kayaks tested, even though
its waterline was the second narrowest of the group. This combination of remarkable
paddling ease and secure secondary stability is a hallmark of all Mariner kayaks. There
are several reasons for this: The flared sides allow a relatively narrow
waterline beam. A narrower waterline means less wave making and less frictional resistance
for a given load. The bow shape promotes laminar flow over more of
the fore-body. Laminar flow has about four times less frictional resistance than turbulent
flow. The stern designs minimize separation resistance
(vortex-shedding or eddy-making). Eddy-making causes much greater resistance than even
turbulent flow. The Swede-form shape (greater underwater volume
aft of the midpoint) has less resistance moving at the water's surface than either a
fish-form shape (its opposite) or a symmetrical hull. The finer bow more gently parts the
water for less wave-making resistance and a longer area in laminar flow. (Note:
A fish-form shape has less resistance underwater or in the air where there is no wave
drag. This has confused some designers who have consulted hydrodynamic texts, but not
gotten the full picture of what happens at the waters surface. Fast ships, canoes
and kayaks are Swede-form. Fast submarines and fast fish are fish-form.) A Swede-form hull has many other advantages over
Fish-form. They include: less pounding in head seas, easier and quicker turning, less
weatherhelm, more of its volume is usable storage space, and a narrower beam where the
paddle enters the water means easier more efficient paddling and less turning moment
produced with each (less off-center) stroke. The raked and flared ends increase the effective
waterline length allowing a faster top (hull) speed without the extra wetted surface
(frictional drag) at normal cruising speed that longer waterlines suffer. Mariner kayaks catch and surf waves easier than other
kayaks. This is not only due to quick acceleration and high top speeds but also to the
planing shape in the midsections. This shape lifts Mariners more out of the water at
surfing speeds. The hard chines fling the water away from the sides reducing the wetted
surface (and therefore frictional resistance) at these speeds. Also, the stern
configurations start sliding down a wave face when the kayak is still in a more horizontal
attitude allowing you to take advantage of the energy in even smaller waves. The wave
crests seem to push you along.
Mariner kayaks are easier to propel than kayaks of similar length and beam. This was clearly demonstrated when Sea Kayaker magazine ran a series of resistance tests on kayaks at the University of British Columbia's ship model towing tank. Of the six kayaks that could be compared the Mariner XL was 9% easier at four knots than the next best tested, and had 18% less resistance than one popular model. While it wasn't as initially stable as many, it capsized at a greater angle of heel than nine of the other ten kayaks tested, even though its waterline was the second narrowest of the group. This combination of remarkable paddling ease and secure secondary stability is a hallmark of all Mariner kayaks. There are several reasons for this:
The flared sides allow a relatively narrow waterline beam. A narrower waterline means less wave making and less frictional resistance for a given load.
The bow shape promotes laminar flow over more of the fore-body. Laminar flow has about four times less frictional resistance than turbulent flow.
The stern designs minimize separation resistance (vortex-shedding or eddy-making). Eddy-making causes much greater resistance than even turbulent flow.
The Swede-form shape (greater underwater volume aft of the midpoint) has less resistance moving at the water's surface than either a fish-form shape (its opposite) or a symmetrical hull. The finer bow more gently parts the water for less wave-making resistance and a longer area in laminar flow. (Note: A fish-form shape has less resistance underwater or in the air where there is no wave drag. This has confused some designers who have consulted hydrodynamic texts, but not gotten the full picture of what happens at the waters surface. Fast ships, canoes and kayaks are Swede-form. Fast submarines and fast fish are fish-form.)
A Swede-form hull has many other advantages over Fish-form. They include: less pounding in head seas, easier and quicker turning, less weatherhelm, more of its volume is usable storage space, and a narrower beam where the paddle enters the water means easier more efficient paddling and less turning moment produced with each (less off-center) stroke.
The raked and flared ends increase the effective waterline length allowing a faster top (hull) speed without the extra wetted surface (frictional drag) at normal cruising speed that longer waterlines suffer.
Mariner kayaks catch and surf waves easier than other kayaks. This is not only due to quick acceleration and high top speeds but also to the planing shape in the midsections. This shape lifts Mariners more out of the water at surfing speeds. The hard chines fling the water away from the sides reducing the wetted surface (and therefore frictional resistance) at these speeds. Also, the stern configurations start sliding down a wave face when the kayak is still in a more horizontal attitude allowing you to take advantage of the energy in even smaller waves. The wave crests seem to push you along.
Tracking and Maneuverability
Mariner kayaks are easily kept on course in conditions that are difficult for most other kayaks. The hull design, windage balance and instant trim changing capability of the sliding seat all contribute to this. This excellent tracking is not at the expense of maneuverability, as with "stiff" tracking kayaks. Many kayaks are so stiff tracking that it takes several hard strokes on one side to make a correction every time wave action pushes their long keels off course. Some designs may turn quicker than a Mariner, but most of these also require constant attention to keep on course.
Excellent tracking AND quick turns may seem to be an outrageous claim, "common knowledge" considers tracking and turning as opposites where one must be sacrificed to get the other. Actually it is a lot more complicated but if you understand the details you can even design a kayak with enhanced tracking and quicker turning in just the situations where they are needed most. We have timed and recorded the turning and spinning in place times of over nine hundred different sea kayak designs. The results support our claim.
At cruising speed in calm water Mariner kayaks can be turned more than 90 degrees using only one strong sweep stroke and tilting the kayak towards the stroke side by lifting the opposite knee. We call this carving a turn because that's what it feels like. Leaning the kayak lifts the keel and tilts it, allowing the stern keel to easily shed water and swing around to the outside of the turn. What's more, when a Mariner is heeled the hard chine becomes a curved keel that significantly adds to the turning force already created by the leaned hull's waterline shape. This is what our "integral rudder" is all about. Hold the lean and you will continue carving a turn until you bring your Mariner back to an even keel to track confidently off on the new course. The angle of tilt controls the arc of the turn. Steeper angle, tighter turn. Leaning helps most kayaks turn and a few are quite responsive to this technique but none are as responsive yet still track as well as a Mariner.
In a Mariner kayak you can stop fighting the waves and start using their energy to surf along at amazing speeds. The pronounced keel and hard-chine after sections not only improve tracking but also help minimize the tendency (of all boats) to broach in quartering and following seas. Combine this with the ability to "sit back" into following waves by sliding the seat aft and you gain exceptional control in this normally difficult condition. This is so effective that even when caught sideways by a small breaker a paddler can usually turn to point a Mariner forward down the wave, allowing them the choice of backing off the wave or sliding bow first up the beach rather than skidding into it sideways.
Seaworthiness and Safety
In addition to the decrease in resistance and paddling effort, the narrower waterlines allow our kayaks to sit deeper in the water, improving tracking and reducing lateral drift in beam winds. The rounded "V" fore-body, as well as the narrower bow waterlines (Swede-form) minimize pounding and slapping. Progressive buoyancy from flare above the bow waterlines prevents the bows from plunging under waves and also avoids a harsh ride. Mariner Kayaks rarely get water on the deck in rough seas so the paddler stays drier and more relaxed.
All Mariners perform admirably in whatever surf the paddler is capable of handling. Coming in the bows do not easily dive. Heading out through reasonable waves and soups the bows ride up and over with little or no solid water racing up the deck to slug the paddler in the chest and stop progress. It takes little momentum to get a Mariner through a breaker that would be difficult to punch through at all in a kayak with a low buoyancy bow. Therefore, there is less chance of being accidentally swept backward by surf. This ease of slicing through and lifting over waves also means more speed and a dryer ride beating into the weather. Our most maneuverable kayaks, the Coaster and Express, are so superior in extreme conditions that they have become favorites among paddlers who regularly play in the surf zone.
When running broadside to waves a Mariner kayak will behave better than others because of the hard chines, pronounced keel, greater draft and flared hull. A narrower (deeper) hull is rolled and skidded sideways less by wave action. Of course this means our boats have less initial stability at rest than those with wider waterlines. At first paddlers accustomed to the stable feel of wide flat-bottomed kayaks may feel Mariners are somewhat tender. They soon discover the excellent secondary stability and secure feel in rough water, relax and enjoy the easier paddling, softer ride, and better control inherent in this shape.
Wider, more initially stable kayaks are hard to lean at times when it is desirable or necessary, such as to aid turning or to lean into a breaker to avoid a capsize. Tilting becomes even more difficult when stability is increased by the addition of a gear load. Tilting an overly stable kayak requires a body lean out over the water, a lot of effort and very secure thigh braces. Once tilted you teeter nervously on edge between flopping back upright or capsizing. A Mariners lower initial and high final stability as well as secure built in thigh braces makes tilting easy, comfortable, and secure with or without a gear load. Simply lift a knee or shift your weight slightly to one side while your body stays vertical above the kayak. Even if your knee were to slip it is unlikely you would capsize.
Expert kayakers don't all agree on how much stability is necessary (and need for stability varies with: a paddler's purpose -- fishing or racing, body size and weight distribution --heavier and higher is tippier, and skill and balance). This is one reason we have several models. Most experienced paddlers much prefer higher secondary and lower initial stability.
Mariners have a good strength to weight ratio thanks to their shape and tough vacuum-bagged construction. We use superior materials and selective reinforcements in the laminate. There is minimal bending and flexing in even the roughest seas. Flexing absorbs some of a stroke's energy that could otherwise go into propulsion. This is one reason polyethylene kayaks feel so dead when you are accelerating or paddling hard. If soft flexible hulls have a speed advantage (as some claim for Eskimo kayaks) racing kayaks would not be made as rigid as possible.
Our concern with safety is evident in the design features common to all our kayaks:
·Paddling ease, sea kindliness, soft ride in waves, cockpit comfort and neutral handling in difficult conditions all mean less fatigue.
·Raked and rockered bows slide over rather than stick into steep beaches. This makes landing in waves (especially dumping shore break) much easier because you can come straight in at full speed and slide way up the beach. With good timing and speed you might even keep your feet dry. A raked bow or stern glances off undersea rocks or unseen deadheads rather than being stopped dead by them--possibly with bone jarring force. Raked ends are far less likely to spear the bottom in shallow surf (a major cause of damage to kayaks used in the surf). Shallow raked and rockered ends also slide much more easily over seaweed and kelp. Imagine you are backing out of a shallow rock strewn sea cave, approaching a mass of kelp as a set of bigger waves are quickly moving toward you, steepening in the shallows, and about to break. The safety advantages of stern rake, good stern buoyancy and no rudder are obvious in a situation like this. That it is essential to have a kayak that travels easily over kelp when paddling an open coastline is less obvious. Breakers are rare in kelp so it is often prudent to paddle in or very near the kelp when the swell is big and seemingly random "boomers" abound. In some areas, where the seas are generally calm, paddling in the vast areas covered by kelp makes seaweed paddling difficult or impossible to avoid.
·Mariner kayaks have their control surfaces closer to the paddler than other kayaks. This provides better control and gives the wind and waves less leverage on them with which to wrest control from the paddler. Large vertical flat areas (including the rudder) near the bow or stern of many kayaks get trapped in (such as when surfing a wave) or batted around by steep and/or reflecting waves. Vertical flat areas don't shed wind as well as rounder shapes either.
·Mariner kayaks are easy to Eskimo roll due to the low back deck, seat position further forward in the cockpit, good side support at the seat, firm easy to grip built-in knee braces, solid footbraces, and no rudder slowing the rotation.
·The low flat rear decks make it possible to carry an emergency passenger or other substantial deck load if necessary.
·If correctly adjusted, the spray skirt will not pop open when hit by a dumping breaker but is easily and quickly removed.
·Our sliding seat can be moved back in an instant (even when upside down) effectively making a longer cockpit. This makes entry and exit quick and easy even for those with longer legs. While this is a major advantage when launching or landing in surf, it will be much appreciated anytime you put in or take out, especially under less than ideal conditions.
·Self rescue capability and extreme stability are available using the outrigger paddle float system we developed and first introduced to kayakers back in 1981. Our rescue, now in wide use, is especially easy with Mariner's flat rear decks and deck lines.
·A spare paddle placed under the rear deck lines with a paddle float on each blade (sort of like training wheels or outriggers) provides extreme stability, with paddling still possible. This outrigger set-up provides far more stability and much less drag than sponsons strapped to the hull.
·Our spare paddle holder is secure enough to hold the spare in surf, yet so handy that the spare paddle can be removed and assembled in a few seconds, from the cockpit.
· Our paddle park holds the paddle securely in front of the cockpit while keeping it available for instant use, just grab the shaft with both hands in the paddling position and pull back.
·Solid stainless steel U-bolts 3/8 inch thick, embedded into both the bow and stern, allow you to securely lock your kayak to a car bumper or tree using a cable or chain.
·We provide four detailed manuals. They cover (1) safety, (2) rescues, (3) the kayak and its features, and (4) a detailed guide to paddling a Mariner kayak, from your first strokes through handling tips, expert strokes, and surfing skills.
Comfort and Convenience
A very dry ride in all but the stormiest conditions is another benefit of peaked fore-decks and flared buoyant bow sections. The higher fore decks also allow more foot room and gear storage than most other kayaks. However, as well as being narrower just in front of the cockpit our decks are relatively low there so your paddle strokes can be comfortably low yet still easily clear the deck. The hump in front of the cockpit seen on many kayaks is a last ditch effort to divert the green water that comes running up over lower and skinnier bows and fore-decks. This hump not only interferes with a low hand position, but the water racing up the low deck in front of it just gets diverted higher up on the paddler (or catches the coaming and sprays up in your face). It is far better to keep waves off the deck in the first place with a higher, flared and more buoyant bow. In the rare instances when water gets on the deck and makes it back to the cockpit of a Mariner the pointed coaming diverts most of the water to the side and down the built in knee brace channels rather than deflecting it up to your chest or exploding it into spray.
The relatively narrow cockpit provides secure thigh bracing but at the same time its length and the sliding seat provide ample room for bending knees up, stretching hamstrings or moving legs around. The longer cockpit means getting in and out is quicker and easier. The ability to stand in the cockpit from a sitting position, or sit from a standing position, makes exiting or entering to or from a high dock easy. Most paddlers can also get their feet in and out while still sitting in the seat. This means you can maintain stability by keeping your weight low (sitting in the seat) while straddling the kayak with your legs. This technique allows you to enter or exit your kayak in shallow water when the shore is too rough to slide the hull against. Sitting up on the back deck to wiggle into or out of a smaller cockpit will raise your center of gravity considerably making shorter cockpit kayaks extremely tippy in the above situations.
You can use the sliding seat/footbrace unit to instantly adjust trim at sea without opening the spray skirt or taking your hands from the paddle. With a little practice trim adjustment can be made on the fly with only a stroke or two lost. The bucket style seat on this unit is high enough to provide the back support essential for long paddling days and low enough for laying back during an Eskimo roll. It is easy to modify with foam padding (or a saw and file) for a truly custom fit. This seat unit makes loading and unloading gear through the cockpit a breeze, just slide it out of your way. The sliding seat is removable for use in camp, however, anyone sitting in even the most comfortable seat for several hours of paddling is unlikely to choose to sit in the same seat in camp. Several other more conventional seats are also options.
Toggled grab loops attached with husky nylon rope to the stainless U-bolts at the very ends of the kayak make carrying a loaded Mariner as secure and painless as possible.
A wide variety of options and colors let you customize your Mariner kayak the way you want it.While you may not need all of the capabilities of your Mariner Kayak you will soon love many of them. Since there are no major disadvantages to having an abundance of capabilities it's nice to know they exist and you have them in reserve if needed.
Ó copyright 1999 & 2008 Matt & Cam Broze